1998 Spring Meeting Abstracts
Abstracts From Spring 1998
No abstracts for this section.
No abstracts for this section.
Firearms and related topics
1. TITLE: “WILLPOWER DEFEATS FIREPOWER – THE NORTH HOLLYWOOD BANK ROBBERY“
AUTHOR: Bayan Lewis, retired Chief of Los Angeles Police Department
ABSTRACT: The methods used and the lessons learned from the North Hollywood Bank Robbery will be presented by the retired Chief of LAPD. This is an exciting presentation, which will address tactics, officer safety, maintaining a command post and processing the scene. Changes were made within LAPD which make dealing with an incident of this magnitude go more smoothly.
Drug Chemistry and Clandestine Labs
1. TITLE: “FOURIER TRANSFORM RAMAN SPECROSCOPY IN THE FORENSIC INDUSTRY“
AUTHOR: Bonnie Leimer, Nicolet Instrumentation Corporation
Fourier Transform Raman (FT-Raman) Spectroscopy is an ideal technique for analysis of forensic evidence. Not only does FT-Raman allow samples to be quickly analyzed and identified without removing the material from an evidence bag or glass jar, it is also complimentary to the information obtained from Infrared analysis. Raman yields information about symmetric structures found in compounds such as C-C or C=C bonds whereas infrared analysis shows details of asymmetric structures including functional groups. In this paper you will see how a spectrum is obtained with FT-Raman, a variety of techniques for collecting samples, and how to analyze the data once it is obtained. Common samples found in the forensic field, including controlled substances, inks found on currency, and acid samples that are difficult to analyze with other techniques will be discussed.
2. TITLE: “ADVANTAGES OF RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY IN FORENSIC ANALYSIS“
AUTHOR: Arnold Melnikoff, Washington State Patrol Crime Laboratory, Spokane, WA
Recent advances in technology, namely the Nd:YAG near infrared laser, coupled with improved Rayleigh filters and the FT spectrometer has brought the advantages in Raman spectroscopy to the bench top in the forensic laboratory. The advantages include the analysis of samples of powders and aqueous samples directly in plastic bags, glass tubes and bottles. Raman spectroscopy can provide increased ability to identify compounds and characterize mixtures that can not be easily identified or characterized by FTIR spectroscopy. Examples of forensic samples analyzed by Raman spectroscopy will be presented. Limitations of the techniques will also be discussed.
3. TITLE: “THE AMMONIA/ALKALI METAL MANUFACTURE OF METHAMPHETAMINE“
AUTHOR: Jeffery Jagmin, Tami Kee and Kimberly Hefton, Washington State Patrol Crime Laboratory, Tacoma
An increasingly popular method of methamphetamine manufacture is the alkali metal reduction of ephedrine or pseudoephedrine in anhydrous ammonia. A study was undertaken to determine optimum reaction conditions for complete conversion of ephedrine to methamphetamine. Some variables investigated were the alkali metal (sodium vs. lithium), amount of alkali metal and the reaction time. A compound with a mass spectrum similar to that of methamphetamine was encountered. The conditions for formation of this compound and its molecular structure were investigated.
Trace Evidence and Crime Scenes
1.TITLE: “PULVERIZED GREEN THREADS, BRAIN AND HIGH VELOCITY BLOODSPATTER UNRAVEL THE MYSTERY OF A CRIME: A HOMICIDE CASE STUDY WITH NO BODY“
AUTHOR: Rod Englert, Chief Deputy (Retired), Rod Englert Forensic Consultants; Ray Grimsbo, Ph.D., D.ABC, Intermountain Forensic Laboratories, Inc.
ABSTRACT: On January 15, 1992, Eric Humbert from New Albany, Indiana was reported missing by his wife. Several months later Humbert’s bloodstained vehicle was found abandoned in a housing authority parking lot in Louisville, Kentucky. Blood stains in the vehicle indicated foul play. The last person to see Humbert alive was his best friend, Jonathan Whitesides, who claimed that Humbert had accused Whitesides of “hosing” his wife. Whitesides admitted that during the ensuing fight, Humbert stabbed himself in the neck as Whitesides tried to control him. In a panic Whitesides dumped Humbert’s body into the Ohio River, abandoned the vehicle, and returned to the scene to clean up blood from the garage. Originally, this case was not going to be filed due to the lack of corroborative physical evidence. Independent laboratory examination of the previously collected evidence and reprocessing of Humbert’s vehicle revealed a plethora of physical evidence including blood spatter, neuronal tissue, jacketed bullet fragments, and green fibers. When coupled with the statements, the subsequent laboratory examinations and opinions supported a 35 minute jury verdict for murder. This case points out the fact that a criminal is vulnerable to an intelligent investigative effort through effective communication of the various scientific disciplines.
2. TITLE: “A “CRUMMY” CASE“
AUTHOR: Lt. Jim Pex, Oregon State Police – Coos Bay Forensic Laboratory
ABSTRACT: In May of 1996, five members of a family were found dead. Their throats had been cut. Some of the family members survived long enough to summon help and implicate a local individual known to be involved with drugs. The suspect had been at the residence earlier in the evening and had reportedly shared drugs and alcohol with some of the family members. After the arrival of the police, the suspect was apprehended in the woods near the residence. The crime lab in combination with the homicide investigation team process the mobile home and surrounding area. Some of the family members traveled within the mobile home before they died and left bloodstain patterns on the walls and furniture. The suspect was also injured and his blood was also located. This presentation will examine the use of DNA results with the bloodstain patterns in order to reconstruct the crime scene.
3. TITLE: “CASE PRESENTATION: AN ATTEMPTED MURDER CASE“
AUTHORS: Kathy S. Wilcox, Oregon State Police – Coos Bay Forensic Laboratory
ABSTRACT: This is a tragic story of a gentle civil engineer and a southern bell. It begins one summer evening along the ruggedly beautiful Oregon coast. It is a true story that unfolds like a dime store novel. This case contains all the classic elements of lust, greed, power, and violence. Follow the blood droplets as forensic science helps unravel the truth of what happened on that beautiful summer evening.
4. TITLE: “OREGON REGIONAL FORENSIC ACADEMY: PRACTICAL TRAINING FOR POLICE OFFICERS WHO HANDLE EVIDENCE“
AUTHORS: Karen L. Lawless, Oregon State Police – Portland Forensic Laboratory; Al Bathke, Oregon State Police
ABSTRACT: This presentation provides an overview of the Oregon Regional Forensic Academy, a training program developed to educate police officers to recognize, document, process, and submit evidence for forensic analysis.
One of the most important tools available to all law enforcement officers in the apprehension of the criminal offender is that of crime scene processing for physical evidence. The proper recognition, documentation, processing, and submitting of evidence can help to insure a successful investigation by the law enforcement officer. The early identification and apprehension of the criminal offender can help to reduce repeated offenses and further victimization of Oregon’s citizens, as well as those who visit the state. For this reason, the Oregon Regional Forensic Academy was developed.
The Oregon Regional Forensic Academy, consisting of 32 hours of instruction, provides all who attend extensive hands-on training in course work that is designed to develop their basic skills in the area of crime scene processing, as well as provide consistency and standardized procedures throughout the state.
This presentation will discuss the contents of the Academy, questionnaires, pre-test and final examinations, feedback from the participants and the effectiveness of the training.
5. TITLE: “MICROANALYSIS OF BUILDING MATERIALS“
AUTHORS: William M. Schneck, Washington State Patrol Crime Laboratory, Spokane, WA
ABSTRACT: The majority of crimes committed today are in urban environments where buildings, and thus building materials, are ubiquitous. Both indoor and outdoor crime scenes may be littered with building material evidence which should be thoroughly examined. Potential sources of primary and secondary transfer of building materials between individuals, tools, and weapons may occur during practically any urban crime. The examination of discharged bullets may offer clues to flight trajectory including impact with intervening materials. During a burglary attempt a suspect’s clothing and hair may come in contact with insulation material, wood chips, wallboard, paint, etc. Tools found in a suspect’s possession may have building materials smeared or adhering to them which should be examined. Motor vehicles involved in an accident may be an excellent repository of building materials from prior contact with an immovable object such as a concrete barrier or wooden utility pole. These are but brief examples of situations in which the proper examination, identification and comparison of building material may be helpful in reconstructing a crime or placing an object or person at a crime scene.
There is an almost infinite number of building material types to study. Friable materials such as blow-in attic insulation, cements, wallboard, materials which are pliable, soft and easily transferred, and materials which may come in contact with bullets, tools and motor vehicles will be discussed during this presentation. Emphasis will be on actual casework examples and include an analytical flowchart.
No arson papers at this meeting
1. TITLE: “DEVELOPMENT AND CHARACTERISTICS OF FORENSIC-QUALITYTETRANUCLEOTIDE MICROSATELLITE LOCI IN MULE DEER“
AUTHORS: Greg Sadowsky 1, Paul Bienvenue 1, Kenneth Jones 1, Kenneth Levine 2, and James Banks 2.
1. Genetic Identification Services, Chatsworth, California
2-California Department of Fish and Game Wildlife Forensic Laboratory, Rancho Cordova, California
Twenty one tetranucleotide microsatellite loci have been isolated and characterized from partial genomic libraries of mule deer DNA enriched for tetranucleotide motifs and cloned in Escherichia coli,. Eight loci were selected for use as forensic markers in four duplex reactions that collectively provide a probability of identity of 6.25 x 10-10, based on allele frequencies in an initial reference set of 24 animals selected from 22 counties throughout California. This number was later expanded to approximately 600 animals selected from over 50 counties. Allele numbers range from a low of four to a high of 11. No two alleles are closer in length than four base pairs, allowing unambiguous identification of individual alleles. All eight loci are amplified under identical conditions. The loci can be amplified in four sets of duplex reactions, and alleles identified following electrophoresis in a native polyacrylamide horizontal gel by staining with ethidium bromide or SYBR Gold. PCR primer sequences, amplification conditions, and a description of a relatively rapid and inexpensive method of electrophoretic separation and detection will be described and provided to interested parties.
2. TITLE: “A STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR A PCR AMPLIFIEDGEL SEPARATED TETRANUCLEOTIDE STR DNA ANALYSIS SYSTEM THAT DISCRIMINATES INDIVIDUAL BLACKTAIL/MULE DEER“
AUTHORS: Kenneth Levine 1, James Banks 1, Dr. Kenneth Jones 2, Greg Sadowsky 2, Paul Bienvenue 2
1-California Department of Fish and Game, Wildlife Forensic Laboratory (WFL)
2- Genetic Identification Services Inc. (GIS), Chatsworth, California
Pursuant to the completion of the CDFG-WFL Deer DNA Project, we in collaboration with GIS staff, created a Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) for our routine deer DNA casework. This is an important document because it: (1) standardizes in writing the step by step methodology along with the equipment and reagents used for not only current but future staff to follow (2) Allows for future modifications and improvements to be made from an accepted standardized starting point (3) leaves a written procedure to be followed in the event of loss of key personnel proficient in the technique and (4) provides the courts and attorneys with the standardized procedure often asked for in discovery motions and evidentiary hearings, thus, contributing to the legal acceptability of the method.
This SOP provides not only the primer sequences for our new Tetranucleotide STR’s, but encapsulates the detailed methodology, equipment, and supply sources used for eight of these loci duplexed into four horizontal electrophoretic gel lanes. This Procedure can easily be brought on-line in other Wildlife Forensic Laboratories for approximately $20,000 or less. This is paramount for the advancement of the Wildlife Forensic field where extreme lack of manpower, funding, and basic R&D is the norm, not only in North American, but throughout the world.
This SOP will be reviewed and copies will be made available to all who desire one along with the primer sequences to all twenty-one (21) polymorphic Deer DNA tetranucleotides generated from this Project.
3. TITLE: “WILDLIFE FORENSICS AT THE UNIVERSITY OF ALBERTA.USING DNA TYPING TO INVESTIGATE CHARGES OF FRAUDULENT DOG REGISTRATIONS.“
AUTHORS: John Coffin and Curtis Strobeck, Wildlife Conservation Genetics and Forensics Laboratory, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, CANADA T6G 2E9
Microsatellite (STR) DNA typing has been used for the past four years in our laboratory to aid in the investigation of wildlife crimes. Typing systems have been developed for a wide range of big game and trophy animals, as well as other wildlife species. DNA typing has been used to aid in the resolution of poaching, civil and criminal cases from the western provinces of Canada as well as several states from the United States. The present report describes the use of DNA typing to resolve the parentage of two litters of purebred Golden Retrievers. This analysis formed part of a larger investigation of twenty litters. DNA fingerprints were determined for two dogs from two separate litters as well as from two putative fathers and a putative mother. As a result of the analysis, one of the males was excluded from being the father and the remaining male and the female were shown to be the parents of the four dogs. The female was an unregistered dog. The accused in this case pled guilty prior to the preliminry hearing. She received a conditional 12 month sentence, including a 9PM to 7 AM curfew. She must make a total payment of $7,000 in reparations to some of the affected buyers. In addition, she is banned for life from breeding dogs. Estimates of the number of dogs that could potentially lose their registration as a result of this investigation has been estimated to be between 1000 and 3000 dogs.
DNA and Conventional Serology
1. TITLE: “SHE’S COLD AS ICE: A COLD HIT“
AUTHORS: Karen Lawless, Oregon State Police – Portland Forensic Laboratory
ABSTRACT: Oregon State Police has had several cold hits on their DNA databank, however; the most unusual was a case of necrophilia. The victim was resting peacefully in her casket in the viewing room when she was assaulted.
2. TITLE: “THE EFFECT OF COLLECTION AND STORAGE OF BIOLOGICAL SAMPLES ON DNA YIELD: A PRELIMINARY REPORT“
AUTHORS: Theresa F. Spear and Rita Tezanos-Pinto, California Department of Justice
ABSTRACT: The effect of drying and storage temperature on the amount of DNA obtained from saliva (cheek swabs) and blood (EDTA vacutainer) was examined in this study. The liquid blood samples were stored at 4 degrees Celsius and –20 degrees Celsius. The bloodstains made on swabs were stored at room temperature, 4 degrees Celcius and – 20 degrees Celcius. Cotton swabs were used to collect cells from the inside of the mouth. These cheek swabs were either kept wet, allowed to dry at room temperature or were actively air dried in a swab dryer. The cheek swabs were then stored at room temperature and –20 degrees Celcius. All samples were examined after a 1-month and 6-month time period.
The blood samples showing the highest DNA yield (6-month time interval) were blood samples stored in liquid form. There was not a significant difference in the samples held at 4 degrees Celcius compared to the samples maintained at –20 degrees Celcius. The bloodstains (held at 4 degrees Celcius and –20 degrees Celcius) showed a significant decrease in DNA yield at the 6-month time interval. The DNA yield of the oral samples, held wet at room temperature, showed a complete loss of DNA. A significant drop in DNA yield was noted from samples maintained wet and stored frozen (6-month time interval). Oral samples that were actively air-dried appeared to yield the largest amount of DNA at the 6 month time interval (samples held at room temperature did not dramatically differ from samples held frozen).
3. TITLE: “THE APPLICATION OF MITOCHONDRIAL DNA SEQUENCE ANALYSIS TO THE IDENTIFICATION OF REMAINS FROM A MASS DISASTER – KAL FLIGHT 801“
AUTHORS: Katz, D., Lee, D., Ross, J., Willard, J., Conklin, G., Armbrustmacher, V.,Holland, M. Armed Forces DNA Identification Laboratory, Rockville, MD
ABSTRACT: On August 6, 1997, Korean Airlines (KAL) Flight 801 crashed on approach to Guam, killing approximately 225 passengers. Among the victims were both American and Korean citizens. Although many identifications were made via conventional forensic methods, 8 Americans and 121 Koreans remained unidentified. For these 129 individuals, DNA analysis was used. The Armed Forces DNA Identification Laboratory (AFDIL) and the Korean National Institute of Scientific Investigation (NISI) worked together in the DNA identification efforts. The questioned specimens were split into equal portions and sent to AFDIL and NISI for analysis. Furthermore, AFDIL was responsible for analyzing the American family references while NISI was responsible for the Korean family references. AFDIL utilized short tandem repeat (STR) analysis as well as mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence analysis in identifying 5 of the 8 previously missing Americans. There were two scenarios that required mtDNA in this case: (1) to confirm an identificaton made by nuclear DNA in which the match statistics were low and (2) to make an identification in the absence of appropriate nuclear references. The strategies that were employed to deal with these two scenarios will be discussed.
4. TITLE: “DNA ADMISSIBILITY ISSUES“
AUTHORS: Barry Scheldahl, U.S. Attorney’s Office
ABSTRACT: No abstract submitted.
5. TITLE: “FUNDAMENTAL STUDIES OF BLOOD STAIN DEGRADATION USING ELECTROSPRAY MASS SPECTROMETRY“
AUTHORS: Jessica Ekhoff and Edgard Espinoza Research Associate and Forensic Science Branch Chief, respectively National Fish and Wildlife Forensic Laboratory, Ashland, OR 97520
ABSTRACT: Samples of human bloodstains were aged for time periods from 1 week to 9 months. Two sets of samples were collected, one aged in a shaded environment and the other in a windowsill exposed to direct sunlight. These samples were prepared at constant concentrations using a quantitative protein assay reagent (Pierce). Analysis was then done on all the aged sample series using an electrospray mass spectrometer (Perkin Elmer API I). The concentrations of the heme (porphyrin) and the alpha globin chain of hemoglobin were determined as a function of age.
Degradation of heme was observed only on the samples aged in direct sunlight. This observation eliminates it’s potential for Forensic applications. It is of significance to note that most published reports that attempt to measure bloodstain aging rely on the intensity of the heme moiety. Preliminary data, however, indicates that the alpha protein degrades at a constant rate and therefore has significant potential for use in determination of bloodstain age.
6. TITLE: “A CASEWORK UPDATE ON THE ARMED FORCES DNA IDENTIFICATION LABORATORY“
AUTHORS: Richard E. Wilson, MS The Armed Forces DNA Identification Laboratory, Office of the Armed Forces Medical Examiner, The Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, 1413 Research Boulevard, Rockville, MD 20850-3125.
ABSTRACT: The opinions and assertions expressed herein are solely those of the authors and are not to be construed as official or as the views of the United States Department of Defense or the United States Department of the Army.
The Armed Forces DNA Identification is comprised of two different sections, the mitochondrial DNA section and the nuclear DNA section. The mitochondrial DNA section’s mission is to support the Central Identification Laboratory, HI (CILHI) in identifying human remains recovered from past military conflicts using mitochondrial DNA sequence analysis. In addition to CILHI casework, the section is actively engaged in outside casework and research projects.
Some of the cases that the mitochondrial section has been involved with are the identification of Tzar Nicholas III’s remains and the question of Anna Anderson as Anastasia. The section has also assisted other jurisdictions with criminal casework such as Bermuda and Massachusetts. The nuclear DNA section’s mission is to support the Office of the Armed Forces Medical Examiner by performing casework on military mishaps such as plane crashed and bombings, as well as assisting in mass disasters such as the TWA Flight 800 disaster. Other case examples include the identification and reassociation of remains involving an explosion at the Wyman Gordon Forging plant in Houston, Texas as well as the Korean Airlines crash in Guam. The nuclear section is also actively engaged in research and just completed work on the STR Standardization Project which was sponsored by the Federal Bureau of Investigation. Specific case details and research projects underway will be presented in more detail.
7. TITLE: “STR TYPING OF SALIVA SAMPLES COLLECTED ON FTA PAPER“
AUTHORS: Christina Stivers and Colette Darland, Oregon State Police – Portland Forensic Laboratory
ABSTRACT: Most states have legislation requiring a blood sample to be drawn from certain convicted offenders to construct a DNA profile database. Compliance with these laws is often compromised by the need to have samples drawn by trained medical personnel. We have begun validating the use of saliva samples collected on FTA paper as an alternative to liquid blood samples. The collection method is simple, and can be easily carried out by trained, non-medical personnel. In addition, the procedure is not as invasive, making it attractive as a means to collect reference standards from victims and suspects, as well as from convicted offenders. Furthermore, preparation of DNA from samples on FTA paper is less time-consuming than other DNA extraction procedures.
Saliva samples were collected by saturating the swab with saliva while rubbing between cheek and gum. DNA was prepared from 2 mm punches of saliva samples on FTA paper according to the manufacturer’s recommended procedure (Life Technologies) followed by amplification using the AmpFlSTR Profiler Plus kit. STR analysis was performed by capillary electrophoresis. A 2 mm punch yielded sufficient DNA for typing. Cycle number was optimized by amplifying for 25,26, 27, and 28 cycles. The effect of different methods of sample collection and deposition on FTA paper will be discussed.
8. TITLE: “EXTRACTION OF DNA FROM BLUE DENIM WITH CTAB IMPROVES PCRAMPLIFICATION“
AUTHORS: Carol M. Rubin, Section of Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of California, Davis California 95616
ABSTRACT: DNA isolated from blue denim fabric is often resistant to subsequent PCR amplification (Del Rio et al, J. For. Sci. 1996, v 41 pp. 490-2). Residual indigo dye or its degradation products may inhibit Taq polymerase.
The cationic detergent CTAB has been used to enable PCR analysis of infective agents present in bull semen (Masri et al, Can. J. Vet. Res. 1997, v 61 pp 15-20.), and was investigated for its’ ability to improve PCR amplifications of human semen – and blood-derived DNA from indigo, overdyed indigo, and “natural” denim fabric.
When DNA from 25-100 microliter of human semen was isolated from blue denim using SDS/DTT/proteinase K followed by phenol/chloroform extraction, amplification from the indigo sample was weak and there was no amplification from the overdyed sample. When the proteinase K treated samples were incubated for 10 minutes with CTAB by the method of Masri et al, DNA from all samples gave strong PCR products in some cases, and in all cases when the amount of Taq was doubled from 2.5 u/100 microliter of mix to 5 u/100 microliter.
I am currently investigating whether CTAB also improves amplification of DNA from blood on blue denim, and whether other detergents yield similar results.
9. TITLE: “PROBATIVE VALUE OF THE EPITHELIAL CELL COMPONENT: CASEWORK STUDY“
AUTHORS: Susan Horman, Oregon State Police – Portland Forensic Laboratory
ABSTRACT: With the power of the PCR process, has come the ability to analyze evidence which was not amendable to genetic typing in the past. One type of evidence is epithelial cells from the victim. Case examples will be given of the success the Oregon State Police Forensic Laboratory analysts have had analyzing penile swabbing kits, as well as stains on evidence.
10. TITLE: “STR POPULATION DATA FROM SIX ETHNIC GROUPS“
AUTHORS: Cecilia von Beroldingen, Ph.D., Colette Darland, Phil Kinsey, Oregon State Police – Portland Forensic Laboratory
ABSTRACT: The Oregon State Police Forensic Laboratory is one of twenty laboratories participating in the STR Research Project (coordinated by the FBI). The project had two goals: to select core STR loci for use in CODIS and to validate STR typing for forensic application. As part of the project, the OSP Laboratory collaborated with the California Department of Justice DNA Laboratory and the Orange County Sheriff-Coroner’s Crime laboratory to generate STR typing data for six West Coast populations. These studies not only generated needed population data but also provided information on the comparability and compatibility of different STR multiplex typing systems and instrument platforms.
STR typing was performed on 875 population samples: 200 Hispanics, 197 African-Americans, 147 Caucasians, 103 Koreans, 110 Chinese, and 118 Japanese. Oregon analyzed the samples using PowerPlex (Promega) on the FMBIO (Hitachi), California used Profiler I (PE Applied Biosystems) on the 310 Genetic Analyzer (PE Applied Biosystems), and Orange Co. used GreenSTR II (PE Applied Biosystems) on the FluorImager (Molecular Dynamics). Each laboratory typed all samples. Good results were obtained with all STR multiplex systems and instrument platforms. A direct comparison was made between typing results generated using PowerPlex with those generated using Profiler I, since these multiplexes have seven loci in common. Although a few discrepancies were initially observed, they were readily resolved. The nature of the discrepancies will be discussed and population data presented.
1. TITLE: “SERIAL CRIMINALS“
AUTHORS: Special Agent Tom Neer, FBI Behavioral and Profiling Unit, Quantico, VA
ABSTRACT: Criminal Investigative Analysis (CIA) is the process utilized by the FBI’s Profiling and Behavioral Assessment Unit in reviewing crimes, criminals and crime scenes from a behavioral perspective. It can be a valuable investigative tool in a variety of criminal cases, particularly those in which a motive may not be obvious or in those reflecting some bizarre psychopathology. In select cases, CIA can be used to identify personal characteristics of unknown offenders. In other cases, it may be used to formulate personality assessments, threat analyses, interview and prosecutorial strategies or expert testimony. Two violent crime cases will be presented to demonstrate the CIA process and to show how it can be used to contribute to a successful investigation and prosecution.
2. TITLE: “HOMICIDES OF THE 70’S THROUGH FORENSIC GLASSES OF THE 90’S“
AUTHOR: Kathy Hays, Oregon State Police – Springfield Forensic Laboratory
ABSTRACT: The 1970’s was a violent decade for young people in western Oregon – particularly females. There are over 20 unsolved homicides, the majority in the Willamette Valley. Technology available today – or tomorrow- may solve some of these old homicides.
In 1972, a 16 year old female was raped and murdered in Douglas County. One remaining piece of evidence in the case is blood on cloth – blood most likely from the killer. The blood is too deteriorated for PCR, but will be submitted for STR. In 1977, two teenagers were murdered in Lane County; both kids were shot, and the female was raped. The prime evidence in this case is semen. PCR was done on the sperm, but no comparison could be made with Oregon’s Violent Offenders’ Data Base since it is in RFLP. In 1978, two teenagers and their dog were murdered in Klamath County. When their bodies were discovered, the nude female was frozen and well-preserved, but no vaginal swabs were taken at the autopsy. The only remaining evidence I’ve been working with are .22 bullets.
In several of these old, unsolved homicides, only hairs remain; other homicides have no usable evidence. With time and loss, or lack, of evidence, some of the murders may never be solved unless someone involved steps forward. As technology progresses, it’s vital to maintain evidence and periodically review old homicides as new scientific procedures become available.
3. TITLE: “A REVIEW OF TWG – GROUPS“
AUTHORS: Terry McAdam, Washington State Patrol, Seattle, WA
ABSTRACT: No abstract submitted.
4. TITLE: “COMMON PHOTOGRAPHIC MISTAKES“
AUTHORS: Jonathan G. Spilker, Oregon State Police – Pendleton Forensic Lab
ABSTRACT: Many presentations have focused on the proper methods of taking photographs. This paper concentrates on the things that can and do go wrong. The problems will be illustrated and an explanation of how to correct them will be covered. This will include over and under-exposure contrast, fill flash, burn out, oblique lighting, front lighting, and back lit advantages as well as their limitations and disadvantages.